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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Malayalam pronunciations. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ml}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

IPA Malayalam ISO 15919 English approximation
k k sky
kh khan
ɡ g go
ɡʱ gh No English equivalent
t͡ʃ c church
t͡ʃʰ ch which hand
ɟ j junior
ɟʱ jh No English equivalent
ʈ tide but retroflex
ʈʰ ṭh got the but retroflex
ɖ dog but retroflex
ɖʱ ḍh No English equivalent
t t earthed
th get down
d d dad
dh No English equivalent
p p pain
f/ ph Has two pronunciations, either as football or pan
b b big
bh No English equivalent
ŋ sing
ɲ ñ cognac
ɳ Hindi Varuna
n month
m m mall
j y yes
ɾ r Spanish tres
l l listen
ʋ v curve
ʃ ś sugar
ʂ shun
s s so
h h head
ɭ Swedish sorl
ɻ ɻ run (rhotic r, as in American English)
r Spanish rojo
n not
IPA Malayalam ISO 15919 English approximation
a a cart
ാ, ആ ā father
ə a about[note 1]
ɪ ി, ഇ i sit
ീ, ഈ ī seat
ʊ ു, ഉ u full
ൂ, ഊ ū fool
ൃ, ഋ better
e െ, എ e eight
േ, ഏ ē eight but longer
o ൊ, ഒ o sole
ോ, ഓ ō Irish pronunciation of coat
əɪ ൈ, ഐ ai mile
əʊ ൗ, ൌ, ഔ au British RP of fold
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)


  1. ^ [ə] may occur as an allophone of /a/ in some word-medial and final positions.