## 1. Engineering Mathematics

**Discrete Mathematics**: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial
orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics:
counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

**Linear Algebra**: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and
eigenvectors, LU decomposition.

**Calculus**: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value
theorem. Integration.

**Probability**: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial
distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and
Bayes theorem.

## 2. Digital Logic

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

## 3. Computer Organization and Architecture

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

## 4. Programming and Data Structures

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

## 5. Algorithms

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

## 6. Theory of Computation

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

## 7. Compiler Design

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

## 8. Operating System

Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

## 9. Databases

ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

## 10. Computer Networks

Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.